The narrative is a fantastic creative activity of art. Scientists interpreted it otherwise. Some of them are looking to qualify the antic design as independent of world, while others want to understand how in the phantasy of the faery tales the relationship of national narrators is broken to the surrounding world. The celebrated Slavic folklorist E. V. Pomerantsev gives the undermentioned definition of the faery narratives: “ … common people narrative is an heroic unwritten graphics, largely with a charming, adventuresome or residential character. The terminal leads us to a idea. This distinguishes it from other genres of the unwritten prose – narrative, narrative, fiction. Probably the most popular and most darling folk tale is charming. Its roots are set in the distant yesteryear. All faery narratives have something common. First, they are constructed in a similar manner. The simple strategy of a fairy narrative contains a few things: 1. Get downing point – something out ; 2. Misdemeanor of the prohibition, 3. Consequences of violation associating to the nature of mythology ; 4. Practicing of some sort of thaumaturgy ; 5. Positive consequence and the safely return of the character. Each fairy narrative follows that construction. None of them goes by without some kind of a miracle, in the life class an immorality or a good supernatural power intervenes. Since the really beginning of the narrative “ The Frog – Princess ” carries the reader into a unusual universe, unlike the one which surrounds him. A male parent forces his boies to take a bow and shoot an pointer in different waies: and where the pointer falls from there to acquire his bride. To the modern reader this seems like a unusual oddity, but in class of the distant yesteryear, people attached great importance to this kind of anticipations and strongly believed in destiny, as they believed in themselves. It is this religion, that was preserved in the antediluvian motive that is shown in the narrative. The pointer of the eldest boy fell in the boyars yard ; the in-between boy – in the courtyard of a merchandiser, and the one of the youngest fell into a frog s swamp. The older brothers were happy and cheerful, but the youngest cried: “ How will I live with a toad? . The brothers married: the oldest to a baronial lady, the in-between one to the girl of a merchandiser and the youngest to a toad. The youngest brother did non have any gifts for his married woman: the toad lived in a swamp, but the older brothers matrimonies were successful. The ancient motive for disinheritance received a new significance in this narrative. From the antediluvian tradition merely the memory of the fact that the youngest brother had the easiest life remained. The poetic imaginativeness has created a image full of vivid and dry sense – during the marrying the toad was puting on a vas – how else was Ivan ( the most common name of the youngest boy ) able to remain with it and maintain its manus. Sad ideas of the hero about his destiny, selected his married woman to be an ugly green and cold toad, are transmitted with naif simpleness and psychological lucidity – “ How to populate? Life is non a field to go through it or a river to swim across it. ” The narrative aims to demo the character ‘s mental province, his experiences. Linked to the powerful forces, nature makes the hero of the narrative strong. He is a adult male who remains faithful to the ethical criterions – non looking for wealth, married to a common swamp toad, because this is his destiny. As for the toad, it is a separate character, widely represented in myths and fables of many peoples. In the assorted fabulous – poetic systems it occurs with both a positive ( associated with birthrate, productive forces, the resurgence ) and negative ( decease, disease, plague ) maps, defined chiefly by its connexion with H2O. In some instances, the toad merely like the fish, the polo-neck or any other aquatic animate beings holds the universe on his dorsum, in others it reveals of import cosmogonic elements. In Altay the toad supplies the wood with birch and rocks from which they extracted the first fire. Sometimes the toad is associated with aquatic elements of the pandemonium from which the universe has occurred. In Burma and Indochina the image of the toad is frequently represented as a spirit that swallows the Moon ( so the toad is considered a ground for occultation ) . In China, the toads are besides associated with the Moon, they call them “ heaven poulets and there is a belief that they fall with the dew from the sky. The motivation for the celestial beginning of toads enables them to be seen as born-again kids or married woman of the Jupiter Tonans as an expatriates of the land in H2O or in the low universe. The close connexion of the toad with God in Heaven is indirectly shown in the Aesop fable about the toads oppugning the Jupiter Tonans for themselves. The motive that the toads are transformed worlds is good known in Australian mythology. By contrast, in Philippine mythology the toad turns into a adult male who fell into the H2O, and was transferred from his married woman across a river. In German folklore, there is the image of ‘Frog Prince ‘ ; in Russian – the image of the princess – toad.
In our narrative, after Ivan violates the prohibition and flips in the oven toad tegument he gets a penalty – separation from his married woman. Then he met a group of characters, reasonably typical of faery narratives – assorted animate beings. The infantile, naif attitude towards populating nature is based on the manner people see the universe: the being of a sensible animal who speaks. The narratives of animate beings who have adopted the signifier and significance from the thought and constructs of crude people, imputing to animals the ability to talk, believe and move sagely. These thoughts, imputing human ideas and workss to animate beings are encountered in the critical battle for control of the forces of nature. The first animate being he saw was the bear. In every adult male s mind the bear is a animal, the worst forest animate being. This place of the bear in the carnal hierarchy is explained in connexion with the traditional pre-mythological faery narratives in which it occupied a outstanding topographic point as a host of the forest. In the class of clip people saw the bear as the Godhead, swayer of the territory. In fairy narratives it s invariably emphasizes the tremendous power the bear has. It kills everything that appears before its eyes. The bear has ever been considered as a peculiarly of import animate being, one of which it should be careful about. The heathens believed that the bear was so strong that in ancient Russia in one of canonical inquiries asked is: “ Can you do coat of a bear? The reply was: “ Yes, I can. There is merely such inquiry about the bear, possibly because it is basically considered inviolable. It is really likely that the Slavs have had a cult of the bear. It s linked with the constructs of defender, similar to a totem. It is a proved fact that in the Slavs existed fabulous thought of animate beings endowed with ground. This was a universe from which they feared and whit which they did non desire to reason. Therefore, adult male observed assorted rites and charming rites. This besides applies to the other animate beings encountered by the supporter. The duck, the coney and the expressway that Ivan spares subsequently serve him dependably. In fairy narratives it is common motivation for the thankful animate being to go a loyal friends and assistants of the adult male. Animals take the side of adult male, when he showed generousness and doesn T do them injury. The account is simple – the animal returns the positive with positive. Another account comes from the ancient times. In about all states it was a usage to kill a bird or an animate being as a forfeit. Possibly talk of thankful animate beings reflected the significance of these ancient traditions. The outgrowth of narratives of animate beings preceded narratives related to beliefs about animate beings. These narratives have non yet had a parabolic consequence. The carnal image had to make with animate beings and nil else. Totems constructs exist and thoughts were transmitted to the carnal characteristics of fabulous animals, the animate beings were revered. These narratives reflected the ceremonially – fabulous and charming constructs and thoughts. It still is non precisely art. Narratives with fabulous character are told with a moral and didactic intent and show people how to cover with animals. By virtuousness of certain regulations, people have endeavored to do the carnal universe under its influence. This was the initial phase towards the origin of a fantastical purpose. Subsequently on it were based on carnal narratives. To the images of ancient life arose the images of adult females helpers, aces and enchantresss. Fairy tales seldom base on balls without a narrative about the beldam. She lives in the forests in an old house and meets with the traditional hero enchantments. V. Prop in his survey writes narratives that the beldam is non the image of a life individual. Harmonizing to him, the odor of life is so contrary and awful to the dead as that of the dead is to the life. Baba Yaga is dead. She lies and leads her immortal life in its little and narrow house merely like in a grave. Baba Yaga is unsighted and ugly, she sees non the hero, but feels his odor. In her personality people see the ascendant female line populating the boundary line dividing the life from the dead. The cult of the ascendants in the female line is associated with the cult and the totemism towards nature. This explains the particular power the old lady has over the living nature. In some narratives Baba Yaga is replaced by a caprine animal or bear. Baba Yaga herself has the ability to transform into birds or animals. Her propinquity to the fabulous image of the swayer of nature explains the particular nature of her crooked pess. Baba Yaga tells Ivan that his married woman is at the place of the immortal Koshtey and tells him how to cover with him. With the image of Koshtey it is expressed the universe of force. Undoubtedly Koshtey is representative of this societal force that breached the ancient wonts of generic equality and has claimed the adult female ‘s old societal function. In fairy narratives Koshtey is ever presented as a kidnaper of adult females who became slaves. He is besides proprietor of huge wealths. In fairy narratives Koshtey is indicated as high, aged adult male with burning eyes. More than a century, he has been killing people but he himself is immortal – his decease is hidden in the egg, the egg in the nest, the nest of oak, oak – on the island and the island – in the eternal sea. The beginning of the life is materialized through the egg and by shattering it there can be an terminal. The narrative does non settle with the unfairness and putting to deaths Koshtey immortal. Fall backing to fanciful agencies of retribution, his life was terminated by a naif but intelligent manner – the embryo interruptions. In this episode, the reader meets partial thaumaturgy, characteristic for fairy narratives. For Koshtey s decease in narratives is told: “ … at the terminal of the acerate leaf and the acerate leaf is in the egg, the egg inside the duck, the duck in the coney, the coney is inside a rock box and the box is on top of tall oak and this oak that Immortal Koshtey keeps like his eyes… ” . The hero overcomes all obstructions, takes the acerate leaf in manus, breaks the yarn “ … no affair how much Koshtey fought, how much he was flicking back and Forth, he died… ” . So he is eventually doomed to decease because good ever must crush the immorality as a secret human desire.
This completes the Slavic common people narrative “ The Frog – princess, which is fairy tale – a premier illustration of the Russian national art. Fairy narratives find their roots deep in the mind, in the perceptual experience, in the civilization, linguistic communication and myths of all states.
Vardaliev, Yaneva, Gegova 1