The History Of English Literature English Literature Essay

The paper attempts to look at the plants of three major authors in the History of English Literature viz. John Keats, Nathaniel Hawthorne and Lloyd Fernando by utilizing the historical attack. The really popular historical attack based on Taine ‘s “ moment-milieu-race ” sees literature as both a contemplation and merchandise of the times and fortunes in which it was written. The attack takes into history the biographical and historical backgrounds when presenting a work besides set uping a literature class in chronological order. It is believed that the history of a state has some revealing effects on its literature and that it can be better understood and apprehended if one has the cognition about the times around its creative activity. ( http: // ) . One therefore, one needs to hold an apprehension of the formative periods of a state and the impact of these periods on communities and persons because they will enable a thorough apprehension of a literary work

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Literary critics have frequently declared that great literature is dateless, and that great authors transcend the peculiar outward signifiers of history because their plants give us a universally valid history of human nature ( Selden,1988, p.419 ) . As such, if one intends to understand and grok a literary work, he must among others study deeper about assorted facets of the writer ‘s life including his experience, personality and the society during the clip of the creative activity. This is because these facets have of import functions to play in determining the writer ‘s personality and influenced his plants

Selden, R. ( erectile dysfunction ) . ( 1988 ) . The Theory of Criticism From Plato To The Present. London and New York: Longman

N.A. ( N.A ) . Approachs To Literature, In N.A, Retrieved December 15, 2012, from ( hypertext transfer protocol: // ) .

John Keats

John Keats ( 1795-1821 ) is known as one of the Big Six Romantic poets stand foring the Romanticism Movement in the History of English Literature, The first coevals of the Romantic poets are William Blake ( 1757-1827 ) , William Wordsworth ( 1770-1850 ) and Samuel Taylor Coleridge ( 1772-1834 ) . Keats belonged to the 2nd coevals together with Lord Byron ( 1788-1824 ) and Percy Shelley ( 1792-1822 ) . Born on October 31, 1795 to Thomas and Frances Jennings Keats, John Keats was the first kid of five siblings. He was sent to a school inA Enfield because his household could non afford to direct him to any other good school. Here Keats benefited non merely from the progressive ambiance which encouraged his independency of character but besides from his friendly relationship with the schoolmaster ‘s boy, Charles Cowden Clarke ( Garret, p.1 ) .

There was so much unhappiness faced by Keats throughout his life which includes the decease of his male parent who was a stableboy in April 1804, when Keats was merely eight. The cause of the decease was a skull break when he fell from his Equus caballus. His female parent remarried merely after two months of his hubby ‘s decease, but left her new hubby shortly afterwards. Keats and his siblings went to populate with their grandma, Alice Jennings in the small town. In March 1810, when Keats was 14, his female parent died of TB, go forthing the kids in the detention of their grandma. Richard Abbey the defender of the kids subsequently took him out of the school and bound him learner to Thomas Hammond, a sawbones and pharmacist who was a neighbor and the physician of the Jennings household ( The Norton Anthology of English Literature, p.766 ) . Having finished his apprenticeship with Hammond, Keats joined Guy ‘s Hospital, London as a medical pupil in 1815. Within a month of get downing, he was accepted as a chest of drawers at the infirmary, helping sawboness during operations. He was instead hardworking at the beginning but easy began to lose involvement and eventually made up his head to wholly give up medical specialty for poesy. Charles Cowden Clarke who became Keats coach during his early old ages at Enfield was responsible in presenting him to great authors such as William Hazlitt, John Hamilton Reynolds, Leigh Hunt and Shelley. “ On First Looking into Chapman ‘s Homer ” published in 1817 became Keats first sonnet followed by “ Sleep ” every bit good as “ Poetry ” ( p.767 ) .

Keats Tourss broadened his familiarity with the environment and assorted people and inspired his authorship. In 1818 for illustration, Keats went for a walking circuit through the Lake of Country up into Scotland and Ireland with his best friend Charles Brown. However, the circuit was really non a pleasant 1 and as such contributed to the Keats ‘ unwellness. Towards the terminal of 1818, Keats nursed his brother Tom, who had contracted TB while his other brother George got married and immigrated to America. For the first clip in their immature lives, the brothers were disconnected apart. A Keats felt the separation keenly because their orphaned upbringing had made them inordinately near before.

Tom ‘s fatal unwellness added deepness to his perceptual experience of its sorrow ( Garret, p.4 )

Subsequently, Keats started on a long verse form Hyperion which he ne’er finished. Hyperion revealed that Keats had become a first category poet due to his house usage of linguistic communication.

Domestic instability may account for Keats ‘s erratic disposition to the extent that he even attacked a maestro for some sensed unfairness to his brother George. His volatile personality found release subsequently in violent switches of temper from epicurean rapture to profound depression and besides in one of the most indispensable features of his poesy: a continual hesitation between the attraction of an escape-world, a Eden created by Li

Although regarded as one of the “ Large Six ” of Romantic poesy and likely best known for his sequence of six lyric odes written in 1819, Keats was really looked down every bit belonging to the “ Cockney School ” of poets. Lord Byron for illustration saw the Cockney School to which Keats was said to belong as an “ under-Sect ” of the Lake School. Byron even ridiculed and called Keats “ a polliwog of the lakes, a immature adherent of the six or seven new schools. In fact Shelley besides shared portion of Byron ‘s position of Keats and criticized all his plants except “ Hyperion ” ( Dawson in Keach, p.204-205 ) . His “ deficiency of instruction ” as compared to any other major Romantic poets may take to the mistakes which were evidenced in his poesy “ On First Looking into Chapman ‘s Homer ” . Although the verse form Tells of his amazement at being able to read the plants of the ancientA GreekA poet HomerA as freelyA translatedA by the Elizabethan dramatist George Chapman, he had unwittingly mistaken the Cortez with the Balboa explorers- it was really the Balboa who caught his first sight of the Pacific Ocean from the highs of Darien inA Panama ( The Norton Anthology of English Literature, 2nd ed. , p.826 ) , non Cortez like what Keats had written. Boys who had been educated at the esteemed schools were all taught Latin and Greek, and they read the plants of Homer in the original Greek. It was a existent deficiency in one ‘s instruction at that clip if one did non read classical plants particularly in their original linguistic communication. Keats did non hold such an instruction, and he besides ne’er knew there was an English interlingual rendition of Homer ‘s plants done by Chapman, until his friend gave him a transcript. Another major mistake can be found in Keats ‘s “ Ode on Melancholy ” , in which he refers to the river Lethe when he really truly means Styx. The sonnet itself is a jubilation of instruction ; the poet is cognizant of his deficiency of instruction. He likens himself to an adventurer.

Soon after his brother ‘s decease, Keats was running out of money and

was in love with Fanny Brawne. He became on the side engaged to

Fanny Brawne and produced some of his greatest plants like Ode

to Psyche, Ode on Melancholy, Ode on Grecian Urn and Ode on

Indolence ( 1819 ) .

On the undermentioned twelvemonth he managed to compose his most perfect narrative verse form The Eve of St. Agnes.

Subsequently, his friend Brown suggested that they write a calamity together. He worked on portion one ofA LamiaA andA Otho the Great, a drama which Brown encouraged as a manner for he and Keats to come in the playwriting concern. A It was their hope that dramas might be more profitable than poetry.A

In August, Keats left the Isle of Wight for Winchester. A Here he wrote the 2nd portion ofA LamiaA and the beautiful odeA To Autumn.

Unfortunately, Keats developed TB merely like his female parent and brother earlier. In February 1820, his physician advised him to go to a warmer clime state.

Keats borrowed money and travelled to Italy with his friend Servern, where he died the undermentioned February at the age of 25.

Keats was full of intense passion and desire, yet diffident and reserved. He was a immature adult male with all the finding and melancholy of a adolescent on a romantic pursuit to be among the English poets when he died. He wanted to be celebrated, and he has good and genuinely lived up to his dream.

Ode to a Nightingale was written easy and rapidly, completed, harmonizing to Brown, in two or three hours ( KC 2, 65 ) aˆ¦ . Within a new auspicious signifier, Keats arranges a host of subjects, images and patterns from the work of old three old ages. P.90

The rich ambiguities of Nightingale are evident in the three characters of its unfolding play: the bird, the speaker-poet and the “ fancy ” .

The theoretical account of fancy as a female agent of vision and flight, but besides as badly disobedient, a “ lead oning elf like Shakespeare ‘s Puck.

Keats’influences on others

Keats is considered as one of the “ Large Six ” of Romantic poesy, although he was looked down upon as belonging to the “ Cockney School ” of poets. He is likely best known for his sequence of six lyric odes written in 1819.

Along with Shelley, Keats was a major influence on later poets, peculiarly the Victorian poet like Alfred Tennyson and the poet Wilfred Owen.

He is considered one of the greatest of the Romantic poets and remains one of the most popular poets studied today.


Like Shelley, Keats used poetic signifiers in nontraditional ways. For illustration, he uses the sonnet signifier in “ On First Looking into Chapman ‘s Homer ” -a verse form in which he talks about his experience of first being able to read a authoritative work for himself.

Many of his verse forms, among them “ La Belle Dame sans Merci ” , are written to sound archaic.

Keats is celebrated for his odes. However, unlike odes written before his clip which were frequently public statements, Keats ‘ odes distinguish themselves by being private speculations of the author refering his ideas and emotions, in line with Romantic attitudes.

Subjects in Keats ‘s plants

Most of Keats ‘ verse forms talk about life and decease, particularly the transiency of life. This subject runs particularly throughout his odes.

This could be because so many of his household members died ( father died of accident, his female parent and brother suffered from TB and died and he himself is besides deceasing at a immature age due to the same disease )

Keats ‘s of import verse forms are related to, or turn straight out of… interior struggles. ” For illustration, hurting and pleasance are intertwined in “ Ode to a Nightingale ” and “ Ode on a Greek Urn ” ; love is intertwined with hurting, and pleasance is intertwined with decease in “ La Belle Dame Sans Merci, ” “ The Eve of St. Agnes, ” and “ Isabella ; or, the Pot of Basil. ”

Cleanth Brooks defines the paradox that is the subject of “ Ode to a Nightingale ” slightly otherwise: “ the universe of imaginativeness offers a release from the painful universe of actuality, yet at the same clip it renders the universe of actuality more painful by contrast.

“ hypertext transfer protocol: // # subjects

A A A A A Other struggles appear in Keats ‘s poesy:

transeunt esthesis or passion / digesting art

dream or vision / world

joy / melancholy

the ideal / the existent

mortal / immortal

life / decease

separation / connexion

being immersed in passion / wanting to get away passion

Keats and Romanticism

Romantic poets, because of their theories of literature and life, were drawn to lyric poesy ; they even developed a new signifier of ode, frequently called the romantic brooding ode.

A A A A A The literary critic Jack Stillinger describes the typical motion of the romantic ode:

“ The poet, unhappy with the existent universe, escapes or efforts to get away into the ideal. Disappointed in his mental flight, he returns to the existent universe. Normally he returns because human existences can non populate in the ideal or because he has non found what he was seeking. But the experience changes his apprehension of his state of affairs, of the universe, etc. ; his views/feelings at the terminal of the verse form differ significantly from those he held at the beginning of the poem. “

“ Negative Capability ”

Keats was an supporter of Shakespeare, and his reading of Shakespeare ‘s work was insightful and challenging, exemplifying the mastermind of Shakespeare ‘s creativeness.

In a missive to his brothers, Keats describes this mastermind as ‘Negative Capability ‘ :

Excerpt from Keats ‘s missive to his brother:

“ . . several things dovetailed in my head, & A ; at once it struck me, what quality went to organize a Man of Achievement particularly in Literature & A ; which Shakespeare possessed so tremendously — I mean Negative Capability, that is when adult male is capable of being in uncertainnesss, Mysteries, uncertainties, without any cranky stretch after fact & A ; ground — Coleridge, for case, would allow travel by a all right stray verisimilitude caught from the Penetralium of enigma, from being incapable of staying content with half cognition. This pursued through Volumes would possibly take us no further than this, that with a great poet the sense of Beauty overcomes every other consideration, or instead obliterates all consideration.

It is the thought that adult male is capable of being in uncertainness or uncertainty without endeavoring to alter this status through seeking for decisions or grounds.


the ability to contemplate the universe without the desire to seek and accommodate contradictory facets or suit it into closed and rational systems. ‘

For Keats, uncertainness or uncertainty is non a negative thing.

Negative Capability ( the willingness to stay in uncertainty or non to decide struggles or ambiguities ) may be seen in his poesy ; for case, in the reasoning inquiries of “ Ode to a Nightingale.

“ Was it a vision, or a wakeful dream?

A A A A A A Fled is that music: – Do I wake or kip? ”

What is an Ode?

Odes: normally a lyric verse form of moderate length, with a serious topic, an elevated manner, and an luxuriant stanza pattern.There are assorted sorts of odes, which we do n’t hold to worry approximately in an introductiory class like this. The ode frequently praises people, the humanistic disciplines of music and poesy, natural scenes, or abstract constructs. The Romantic poets used the ode to research both personal or general jobs ; they frequently started with a speculation on something in nature, as did Keats in “ Ode to a Nightingale ” or Shelley in ” Ode to the West Wind.

hypertext transfer protocol: // # lyric

Keats ‘ Odes are based on his relentless sort of experience which

dominated his feelings, attitudes, and ideas during that clip.

Each of them is non merely alone, but besides a aspect of his larger experience.

This larger experience is an intense consciousness of both the joy and hurting, the felicity and the sorrow, of human life. It is a feeling and besides a idea, a sort of incubation as the poet sees them in others and experience them in himself.

Harmonizing to him, human existences must fulfill their desire for felicity in a universe where joy and hurting are necessarily and inextricably tied together. This brotherhood of joy and hurting is the cardinal fact of human experience that Keats has observed and accepted as true.

Keats ‘s odes are considered to be his chef-d’oeuvres and one of the major accomplishments in English literature.

“ Ode to a Nightingale ” is normally taken to be the first ode written in this sequence of odes, while “ Ode to Melancholy ” is taken to be the last.

“ Ode to a Nightingale ” shows how suffering and consciousness of beauty are inextricable linked.

The “ Ode on a Greek Urn ” centres around the transiency of life and the permanency of Art.

“ To Autumn ” and “ Ode to Melancholy ” show beauty at its purest. Both verse forms are extremely descriptive.

Throughout the odes, the subject is that true beauty must be transient in order to be beautiful ; life is beautiful because it is transeunt.

The usage of Imagination

A A A A A Keats ‘s imagination ranges from physical esthesiss: sight, hearing, gustatory sensation, touch, odor, temperature, weight, force per unit area, hungriness, thirst, gender, and motion. Keats repeatedly combines different senses in one image, that is, he attributes the trait ( s ) of one sense to another, a pattern calledA synesthesia.

Among others synesthetic imagination maps as a portion of the animal consequence, and the combine of senses usually experienced.


“ Ode to a Nightingale ”

In some MELODIOUS secret plan

Of BEECHEN GREENA ( stanza I )

Combination of sound ( “ tuneful ” ) and sight ( “ beechen green ” )

But here here is no LIGHT,

Salvage what from Eden is with the BREEZES BLOWNA ( stanza IV )

Combines sight ( “ visible radiation ” ) with touch/movement ( “ breezes blown ” ) . This image describes light filtrating through foliages moved by the air current.

Ode on a Greek Urn

by John Keats

The verse form portrays the character ‘s effort to prosecute with the inactive stationariness of sculpture.

The Greek urn, passed down through infinite centuries to the clip of the talker ‘s screening, exists outside of clip in the human sense-it does non age, it does non decease, and so it is foreign to all such constructs.

In the character ‘s speculation, this creates an challenging paradox for the human figures carved into the side of the urn: They are free from clip, but they are at the same time frozen in clip.

They do non hold to face aging and decease ( their love is “ for of all time immature ” ) , but neither can they hold experience ( the young person can ne’er snog the maiden ; the figures in the emanation can ne’er return to their places ) .

1 ) Thou still unravish ‘d bride of soundlessness,

A A A A A Thou foster child of silence and slow clip,

Sylvan historian, who canst therefore express

A A A A A A flowery narrative more sweetly than our rime:

What leaf-fring ‘d fable hangouts about thy form

A A A A A Of divinities or persons, or of both,

A A A A A A A A A A In Tempe or the dales of Arcady?

A A A A A What work forces or Gods are these? What maidens loth?

What mad chase? What battle to get away?

A A A A A A A A A A What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy?

The talker stands before an ancient Greek urn and addresses it.

He is preoccupied with its word picture of images frozen in clip.

-It is the “ still unravish ‘d bride of soundlessness, ” the “ foster-child of silence and slow clip. ”

-describes the urn as a “ historian ” that can state a narrative.

-wonders about the figures on the side of the urn and asks what legend they depict and from where they come.

-looks at a image that seems to picture a group of work forces prosecuting a group of adult females and admirations what their narrative could be: “ What mad chase? What battle to get away? What pipes and timbrels? What wild ecstasy? ”

2 ) Heard tunes are sweet, but those unheard

A A A A A Are sweeter ; hence, ye soft pipes, drama on ;

Not to the animal ear, but, more endear ‘d,

A A A A A Pipe to the spirit ditties of no tone:

Fair young person, beneath the trees, 1000 canst non go forth

A A A A A Thy vocal, nor of all time can those trees be bare ;

A A A A A A A A A A Bold Lover, ne’er, ne’er canst thou buss,

Though winning near the end yet, do non sorrow ;

A A A A A She can non melt, though thou hast non thy cloud nine,

A A A A A A A A A A For of all time wilt 1000 love, and she be just!

*the talker looks at another image on the urn of a immature adult male playing a pipe, lying with his lover beneath a clearing of trees.

*The talker says that the piper ‘s “ unheard ” tunes are sweeter than mortal tunes because they are unaffected by clip.

*He tells the young person that, though he can ne’er snog his lover because he is frozen in clip, he should non sorrow, because her beauty will ne’er melt.

3 ) Ah, happy, happy boughs! that can non cast

A A A A A Your leaves, nor of all time bid the Spring adios ;

And, happy melodist, untired,

A A A A A For of all time shrieking vocals for of all time new ;

More happy love! more happy, happy love!

A A A A A For of all time warm and still to be enjoy ‘d,

A A A A A A A A A A For of all time heaving, and for of all time immature ;

All take a breathing human passion far above,

A A A A A That leaves a bosom high-sorrowful and cloy ‘d,

A A A A A A A A A A A combustion brow, and a parching lingua.

He looks at the trees environing the lovers and feels happy that they will ne’er cast their foliages.

. He is happy for the piper because his vocals will be “ for of all time new, ” and happy that the love of the male child and the miss will last everlastingly, unlike mortal love, which lapses into “ take a breathing human passion ” and finally vanishes, go forthing behind merely a “ combustion brow, and a parching lingua. ”

4 ) Who are these coming to the forfeit?

A A A A A To what green communion table, O cryptic priest,

Lead’st 1000 that heifer mooing at the skies,

A A A A A And all her satiny wings with Garlands drest?

What small town by river or sea shore,

A A A A A Or mountain-built with peaceable bastion,

A A A A A A A A A A Is emptied of this common people, this pious forenoon?

And, small town, thy streets for evermore

A A A A A Will soundless be ; and non a psyche to state

A A A A A A A A A A Why thou art desolate, can e’er return.

The talker examines another image on the urn, this one of a group of villagers taking a heifer ( a immature cow ) to be sacrificed. He wonders where they are traveling ( “ To what green communion table, O cryptic priest… ” ) and from where they have come.

He imagines their small town, empty of all its citizens, and tells it that its streets will “ for evermore ” be soundless, for those who have left it, frozen on the urn, will ne’er return

5 ) O Attic form! Fair attitude! with brede

A A A A A Of marble work forces and maidens overwrought,

With forest subdivisions and the trodden weed ;

A A A A A Thou, soundless signifier, dost badger us out of idea

As doth infinity: Cold Pastorale!

A A A A A When old age shall this coevals waste,

A A A A A A A A A A Thou shalt remain, in thick of other suffering

Than ours, a friend to adult male, to whom 1000 say’st,

A A A A A “ Beauty is truth, truth beauty, — that is all

A A A A A A A A A A Ye know on Earth, and all ye need to cognize. ”

The talker once more addresses the urn itself, stating that it, like Eternity, “ doth badger us out of idea. ”

He thinks that when his coevals is long dead, the urn will stay, stating future coevalss its puzzling lesson: “ Beauty is truth, truth beauty. ” The talker says that that is the lone thing the urn knows and the lone thing it needs to cognize.

Ode to Nightingale

Stanza 1-The talker opens with a declaration of his ain grief. He feels numb, as though he had taken a drug merely a minute ago. He is turn toing a Luscinia megarhynchos he hears singing someplace in the wood and says that his “ drowsing numbness ” is non from enviousness of the Luscinia megarhynchos ‘s felicity, but instead from sharing it excessively wholly.

Stanza 2- the talker longs for the limbo of intoxicant, showing his want for vino, “ a draft of vintage, ” that would savor like the state and like peasant dances, and allow him “ leave the universe spiritual world ” and vanish into the dim wood with the Luscinia megarhynchos.

Stanza 3-he explains his desire to melt off, stating he would wish to bury the problems the Luscinia megarhynchos has ne’er known: “ the fatigue, the febrility, and the fret ” of human life, with its consciousness that everything is mortal and nil stopping points. Youth “ grows picket, and spectre-thin, and dies, ” and “ beauty can non maintain her bright eyes.

Stanza 4- the talker tells the Luscinia megarhynchos to wing off, and he will follow, non through intoxicant ( “ Not charioted by Bacchus and his pards ” ) , but through poesy, which will give him “ viewless wings. ” He says he is already with the Luscinia megarhynchos and describes the forest clearing, where even the moonshine is hidden by the trees, except the visible radiation that breaks through when the zephyrs blow the subdivisions.

Stanza 5-the talker says that he can non see the flowers in the clearing, but can think them “ in embalmed darkness ” : white Hawthorne, sweetbrier, violets, and the musk-rose, “ the rustling hangout of flies on summer Eves.

Stanza 6-the talker listens in the dark to the Luscinia megarhynchos, stating that he has frequently been “ half in love ” with the thought of deceasing and called Death soft names in many rimes. Surrounded by the Luscinia megarhynchos ‘s vocal, the talker thinks that the thought of decease seems richer than of all time, and he longs to “ discontinue upon the midnight with no hurting ” while the nightingale pours its psyche rapturously away. If he were to decease, the Luscinia megarhynchos would go on to sing, he says, but he would “ hold ears in vain ” and be no longer able to hear.

Stanza 7- , the talker tells the Luscinia megarhynchos that it is immortal, that it was non “ born for decease. ” He says that the voice he hears singing has ever been heard, by ancient emperors and buffoons, by homesick Ruth ; he even says the vocal has frequently charmed unfastened thaumaturgy Windowss looking out over “ the froth / Of parlous seas, in faery lands forlorn.

Stanza 8-the word forlorn tolls like a bell to reconstruct the talker from his preoccupation with the Luscinia megarhynchos and back into himself. As the nightingale flies farther off from him, he laments that his imaginativeness has failed him and says that he can no longer remember whether the Luscinia megarhynchos ‘s music was “ a vision, or a wakeful dream. ” Now that the music is gone, the talker can non remember whether he himself is awake or asleep

Charles Brown, a friend with whom Keats was populating when he composed this verse form, wrote,

“ In the spring of 1819 a Luscinia megarhynchos had built her nest near my house. Keats felt a tranquil and continual joy in her vocal ; and one forenoon he took his chair from the breakfast tabular array to the grass-plot under a plum-tree, where he sat for two or three hours. When he came into the house, I perceived he had some garbages of paper in his manus, and these he was softly thrusting behind the books. On enquiry, I found those garbages, four or five in figure, contained his poetic feeling on the vocal of our Luscinia megarhynchos.

A major concern in “ Ode to a Nightingale ” is Keats ‘s perceptual experience of the conflicted nature of human life, i.e. , the interconnectedness or mixture of pain/joy, strength of feeling/numbness or deficiency of feeling, life/death, mortal/immortal, the actual/the ideal, and separation/connection.

A Keats focuses on immediate, concrete esthesiss and emotions, from which the reader can pull a decision or abstraction.

To Autumn

Keats describes early fall, when all the merchandises of nature have reached a province of perfect adulthood.

Autumn is personified and is perceived in a province of activity.

Season of mists and laid-back fecundity,

A A A Close bosom-friend of the maturating Sun ;

ConspiringA with him how to lade and bless

A A A With fruit the vines that round theA thatch-evesA tally ;

To flex with apples the moss ‘d cottage-trees,

A A A And make full all fruit with ripeness to the nucleus ;

A A A A A A To swell the calabash, and plummet the Pomaderris apetala shells

A A A With a sweet meat ; to put budding more,

And still more, ulterior flowers for the bees,

Until they think warm yearss will ne’er discontinue,

A A A A A A For summer has o’er-brimm ‘d their clammy cells.

In the first stanza, fall is a friendly plotter working with the Sun to convey fruits to a province of perfect comprehensiveness and ripeness.

Who hath non seen thee frequently amid thy shop?

A A A Sometimes whoever seeks abroad may happen

Thee sitting careless on a granary floor,

A A A Thy hair soft-lifted by theA winnowingA air current ;

Or on a half-reap ‘d rut sound asleep,

A A A Drows ‘d with the smoke of poppies, while thyA hook

A A A A A A Spares the following swath and all its twined flowers:

And sometimes like aA gleanerA 1000 dost maintain

A A A Steady thyA ladenA caput across a creek ;

A A A Or by a cyder-press, with patient expression,

A A A A A A Thou watchest the last seepages hours by hours.


In the 2nd stanza, fall is a thrasher sitting on a granary floor, a reaper asleep in a grain field, a gleaner traversing a creek, and, in conclusion, a cyder shaper.

Where are the vocals of spring? Ay, A Where are they?

A A A Think non of them, thou hast thy music excessively, –

While barred cloudsA bloomA the soft-dying twenty-four hours,

A A A And touch theA stubble-plainsA with rose-colored chromaticities ;

Then in a lamenting choir the little gnats mourn

A A A Among the riverA sallows, borne aloft

A A A A A A Or sinking as the light air current lives or dies ;

And adult lambs loud bleat from hilly bourn ;

A A A Hedge-crickets sing ; and now with soprano soft

A A A The red-breast whistlings from aA garden-croft ;

A A A A A A And assemblage sups chirrup in the skies


In the concluding stanza, fall is seen as a instrumentalist, and the music which fall produces is every bit pleasant as the music of spring – the sounds of gnats, lambs, crickets, redbreasts and sups.

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