The Impact Of Celebrity Endorsement On Brand Perception Marketing Essay

Literature reappraisal is utile as it gives information on research already done by others on the subject selected if done decently it can supply an academically enriching experience.It is of import to happen what already exists on the proposed country of research. Understanding the history of the topic is the basic demand of the proposed research because by going familiar with the history of the topic will assist to acquire acquainted with the current research and positions on the subject. Areas of concern, current involvement and perchance countries of comparative disregard will go evident as thorough research will give arrows to specific affairs deserving analyzing ( Hart 1998 ) . Some of the infusion from the literature reappraisal is presented below which will be utile in the hereafter research undertaking.

Brand direction

Harmonizing to Peter ( 2002 ) a trade name with a good repute makes it client experience good about the pick they have made to buy and utilize the merchandise or service. The first thing that a reputed trade name does is that it assists the clients in determination devising and that is because it knows how to do the clients feel good. Peter farther adds a good trade name entices its clients in a virtuous circle of action and reaction, give and take. Since a good trade name has the power and complexness to make so many things branding should be done carefully. Branding is more than a name and a motto, and to greater extent it is more than an advertizement. The aforesaid things can be termed as accelerator to a trade name nevertheless can non be compared to the bosom of a trade name. The bosom of the trade name is an thought, and thoughts can alter, and be changed – that ‘s how a trade name lives, learns and grows. A name can non be successful no affair how outstanding it sounds round the bureau council chamber tabular array backed by a mostly funded advertisement run without the interpolation of a superb thought. A trade name without any originative thought is a merely a to a great extent promoted name. Marconi ( 2000 ) states over the old ages trade names and the thoughts behind trade names have evolved by larning to fit the fortunes of times and the penchants of clients. The kernel of a good trade name direction lies in the appropriate direction of this development. Pull offing the altering intent of trade names is the kernel of good selling. Harmonizing to Gregory and Weichmann ( 2002 ) as with turning times clients become trade name literate the trade names started to settle down into more resolute personalities. In order to give their trade name a distinguishable personality trade name directors commenced to do individual minded claims. The USP ( alone merchandising proposition ) was born, with the purpose to give trade names a really resolved competitory advantage. However the USP should be promoted carefully as its association with the merchandise can remain longer than expected. This can be explained by mentioning the illustration of Volvo which still owns safety as a alone merchandising proposition in the auto market, so much so that it has to seek that much harder whenever it wants any message other than safety to be heard. David Ogilvy one of the loyalist of the advertisement industry was cognizant of the effects of a hapless stigmatization scheme therefore he wanted trade names to travel beyond simple promises and advocated in favor of constructing a trade name image. Ogilvy believed a trade name can bask a grade of protection if it is able to construct a better image than its rivals. Harmonizing to Milne and McDonald ( 2000 ) a quality merchandise with an inferior image can fight and if the image is non revised it would neglect. However some companies besides travel on the unsafe way where the trade name image is considered more of import than the merchandise. This attack affirms the belief of people who suspect stigmatization is about masking substandard merchandises with surface images.

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Celebrity indorsement

Harmonizing to Boorstin ( 1961 cited by Graeme 2004 ) a famous person is “ the famous person is a individual who is well-known for their well-knowness Fabricated on intent to fulfill our overdone outlooks of human illustriousness ” . He farther adds famous persons differentiate their personalities from those of their rivals in the public sphere to get their capacity for celebrity contrary to the belief that celebrity is achieved by making great things. As a consequence while heroic figures are recognised by their achievements or by “ the great simple virtuousnesss of their character ” on the other manus famous persons are distinguished “ chiefly by trifle of personality ” . The impact of famous person indorsement can be confirmed by the fact that over the old ages in United Kingdom and United States famous person indorsement has increased about by 25 per centum compared to other signifier of advertizement. In Japan famous person indorsement have grown at a phenomenal rate of 70 per centum of all advertizement ( Hsu and Mcdonald 2002 ) . Because of the success of famous person indorsement famous persons command a big fee for contracts, doing this a moneymaking and attractive calling dimension.

Carroll ( 2008 ) states over the old ages trade names have evolved and non merely brands represent quality, trust and dependability to consumers but besides a medium for consumers for ego look, self designation and self realization. Trade names have become an built-in portion of consumers personality and mind. However the traditional attacks of trade name communicating such as storytelling and verbal communicating are threatened by increasing advertisement literacy and barriers like cynicism. To get the better of such hinderance ‘s administrations opt for famous person indorsement as it is considered to be potentially powerful tool in communications. As famous persons are considered to be more powerful than anon. theoretical accounts to heighten the impact of the advertisement run selling runs are designed set uping a relation between the personality of the famous person and the trade name. Silvera and Austad ( 2004 ) provinces in the stigmatization procedure famous person indorsement has become a popular attack as it assists in deriving and maintaining attending of the consumer and in constructing a favorable association which contributes to healthy trade name cognition and distinguishable trade name image. The ground for the success of this scheme is it creates a congruous image between the trade name and the consumer. Harmonizing to ( Bryne et al 2003 ) there are assorted distinguishable advantages of utilizing famous person indorsement to back up a trade name scheme such as image shining, trade name repositioning, trade name debut, and increased attending. Celebrity indorsement is besides powerful tool in planetary selling scheme as the consumers have entree to change mediums for amusement and communicating ( Erdogan 1999 ) . This is in congruent to Pringles ( 2004 ) where he argues in favor of famous person indorsement he states that macro factors such as the demand for interaction, increased media atomization and the consumers desire to command the messages received confirms famous person indorsement as a valid scheme. harmonizing to Prinlges ( 2004 ) assorted researches in the yesteryear have indicated the strong influence of famous person indorsement over the consumers buying determination. He affirms that a successful association between a famous person and trade name has ever assured important benefits for trade name proprietors.

Nike

Nike is one of the biggest makers of athleticss dress and athletic places. It started selling athleticss accoutrement, athleticss dress and athletic bags in 1979. Nike offers a broad and varied scope of athleticss equipment, places and merchandises all of which have retained their topographic point in the top merchandising merchandise classs. Nike holds a major portion of 33 % of the athletic footwear industry globally. The production installation for Nike is based in Asia and has gross revenues installations in around 200 states with the support of client service and other operational units worldwide ( Bradley 2005 ) . Since its origin the company has used a selling scheme which relies to a great extent on a favorable trade name image which has resulted in Nike germinating as a big transnational administration. Nike makes immense investing in advertisement and trade name publicity to keep and prolong its trade name image. The company has a typical trade name logo and an advertisement slogan “ Merely make it ” . Nike competes with every athleticss fabrication trade name in being by bring forthing goods for a broad assortment of athleticss. Adidas a German company is the lone 1 in the athleticss good industry that offers strong competition to Nike. Since there are no other major participants in the industry that can fit with the merchandise scope of Nike the company enjoys a popular trade name image worldwide in all countries of athleticss and athleticss manner ( Kotler and Armstrong 2007 ) . It uses assorted signifiers of selling such as patronizing events, merchandise sponsorship ; tie up with college squads and famous person indorsement. However out of all the schemes mentioned it uses marketing scheme of famous person indorsement to its maximal advantage. In 2004 Nike became the first equipment provider for the athletics of football this is a phenomenal accomplishment sing that Nike was at No 7 in the market after the football universe cup in 1994. This can impute to its partnership with famous person participants like Henry, Roberto Carlos, Figo, Ronaldo. In 2000 Nike entered into a contract with English nine Manchester United for $ 550 for 13 old ages. Similarly it besides has contract with other squad like Arsenal, Juventus, F. C Barcelona ( Ferrell and Hartline 2007 ) .

Aim

The thesis investigates the influence of selling on the perceptual experience of trade name carry oning a instance survey of Nike ‘s trade name indorsement by famous persons. Literature is reviewed on the background of trade name direction, Nike as an administration and Nike ‘s selling schemes, the theory of trade name including trade name creative activity and revival through selling, famous person indorsement, etc. The methods of the research include primary informations collected from a questionnaire and interviews with bing clients and prospective clients aimed to understand their attitudes towards Nike as a trade name and its association with famous persons. Decisions are made about the relationship between association of famous persons and trade name perceptual experience.

Research method

To accomplish the purpose of the research work and to acquire valid and dependable consequences taking a proper methodological analysis is of import. The research intent and research inquiries decide the pick of methodological analysis ( Saunders et al 2003 ) .According to Joyner and Glatthorn ( 2006 ) developing a sound research design is of import irrespective the type of research, research design is a specific program for analyzing the research program. While carry oning the research both Primary and secondary informations will be used. Harmonizing to Hussey ( 1997 ) primary informations is which is original and secondary informations is which already exists.

Qualitative and Quantitative Data

Harmonizing to Joyner and Glatthorn ( 2006 ) informations can be described as qualitative and quantitative. Quantitative information is collected in the numerical signifier whereas qualitative informations is focused on quality and non numerical features. As qualitative analysis means complete and elaborate description of the research subject, this research will utilize qualitative informations every bit good as quantitative informations analysis for its intent.

Data aggregation

Howard et Al ( 2002 ) province there are two types of informations Primary and Secondary informations which can be used for research intent. The important difference between them is while primary informations is collected for a certain intent by the research worker secondary information is which has been already gathered it may non associate straight to current research.

Secondary informations

Secondary informations is informations which already exists it is collected by others for their research or information, secondary information may straight non associate to the research undertaken nevertheless it will surely assist in the foundation of the research ( Howard et al 2002 ) . Beginnings of secondary research which will be used for the research intent are Journal, books, articles and cyberspace. There has been well sum of empirical research done on the development of trade names, many books and diaries have been written on the direction and selling of trade names, selling scheme, how to derive competitory advantage etc. Literature reappraisal of all this available information will be done in the class of the research as it will give information on the history and present scenario of the industry.

Contribution of different writer to the subject can non be ignored cognition of the yesteryear is of import as decision and recommendations can be drawn from the information and statistics available.

Primary informations

Primary informations is first manus information it is collected straight and relates to the research being conducted, Primary informations can be collected by several methods such as interviews, questionnaires, focal point group interviews, instance surveies etc ( Howard et al 2002 ) . Interviews with employees at working at different direction degree will be sought as it is a major beginning to roll up information.

Interviews

For the intent of the research semi structured Interviews will be conducted with selected figure of employees working in Nike shops which will include gross revenues representatives, subdivision coordinators, direction forces and selling section. Their positions on selling schemes, publicities, bing clients, prospective clients and rivals and trade name direction etc would be analyzed. If executable interviews may be conducted with employees working in Nike shops located in Mumbai India to acquire their positions on the selling schemes to compare and measure the schemes adopted worldwide.

Harmonizing to Kvale ( 1996 ) “ Interviews are conversations where the result is the co production of the interviewer and the topic ” . To blossom the significance of peoples experience the qualitative research interview efforts to understand the universe from the topics point of position. In an interview conversation, the research worker listens to subjects about their experiences and aspirations and expresses their positions and sentiments in their ain word. Hussey ( 1997 ) points there are several jobs associated when carry oning an interviews the whole procedure can be expensive and clip consuming and recommends in some instances a questionnaire may be more appropriate. Questionnaires are based on stopping point ended inquiry and do non give much range where as the interviews give room for more unfastened replies. Out of all the methods of informations aggregation Interviews is selected for the intent as it allows the respondent to give a more elaborate reply instead than merely a yes or no. Semi structured interviews will be prepared after sing all the inside informations to acquire dependable and first manus information related to the research.

Questionnaire

In Luck & A ; Rubin ‘s ( 1987 ) findings a questionnaire is defined as “ a formalistic agenda to obtain and enter particular and relevant information with tolerable truth and completeness ” . On a similar note harmonizing to Bruce ( 2004 ) the function of the questionnaire is to circulate necessary information to the respondent for him to reply the aims of the study, likewise it besides helps the research worker to set forth his country of involvement in an effectual manner. In order to make this, the questionnaire should non aim merely on roll uping informations, but instead emphasis on roll uping the right nature of informations that is possible. In add-on, McNabb ( 2004 ) feels that questionnaires are designed to set up what the mark audience know, what views they have, and how do they mean to move on a peculiar state of affairs ; harmonizing to him questionnaires are a flexible medium of informations aggregation owing to the simpleness of the instrument.

From academic research it is apparent that marketing research literature has bipolar dimensions of informations in both quantitative and qualitative attacks. In qualitative attack stressed is laid on bring forthing in-depth information from a smaller figure of respondents, nevertheless on the contrary quantitative attack relies on collating statistical informations from a larger pool of respondents. In the positions of Veal ( 1997 ) in certain instances information of qualitative nature is frequently presented in quantitative signifier. Developing Veal ‘s point of view it can be ascertained that qualitative inquiries helps in roll uping quantitative informations by agencies of multiple pick inquiries. Since multiple pick inquiries benefits with comprehensive informations through the assortment of responses that it generates.

A

From the above mentioned research advantages it can be ascertained that the questionnaire method shall turn out an effectual medium to back up the findings of this thesis. Hence a mix of attacks has been devised in this thesis in order to warrant the findings on this research. By utilizing both quantitative and qualitative techniques in the questionnaire, it is believed that it would earn echt informations aggregation on comprehensive graduated table and lesser disagreements.

Research Approach

Harmonizing to Saunders, et Al ( 2003 ) there are two chief attacks when making a research the deductive attack and the inductive attack.Deductive attack involves developing hypothesis based on the bing theories and so carry on a research aimed to prove the hypothesis. In an inductive attack a theory is formulated after the analysing the information collected. After reexamining the bing literature about selling schemes, trade name direction, deriving competitory advantage etc the right attack will be selected at different phases of the research.

Ethical considerations

Creswell ( 2002 ) provinces there are ethical issues which arise at different phases of the research runing from the statement of the research to the reading and authorship of the informations collected Creswell ( 2002 ) adds in order to keep ethical evidences

Subject should hold the right to take part voluntarily, the right to retreat anytime and the right to inquire inquiries.

Purpose of the survey should be clearly explained so that the participant understands the nature of the research and its impact.

Procedure of the research needs to be explained so that topics anticipate what is expected from them.

The major portion of the survey covers marketing schemes, trade name direction, client ‘s outlooks and schemes to derive competitory advantage these will be covered by carry oning personal interviews and questionnaire. The information obtained will be of primary importance and will hold personal sentiments. If requested no personal information of the participant will be disclosed and namelessness will be maintained. Neuman ( 2000 cited by creswell 2002 ) adds the linguistic communication or word used in the research should non be bias against any gender, age, group of people, race or sexual orientation. During the research appropriate steps will be taken non to prosecute in any of the foul patterns mentioned above.

Referencing

Bradley.F ( 2005 ) , “ International Marketing scheme ” Prentice Hall, California

Bryne, A. , Whitehead, M. and Breen, S. ( 2003 ) The bare truth of famous person indorsement. British Food Journal, Vol. 105 No. ( 4/5 )

Bruce, I. ( 2004 ) , Questionnaire Design: How to Plan, Structure and Write Survey Material for Effective Market Research, Kogan Page

Carroll.Angela ( 2008 ) , “ Brand communications in manner classs utilizing famous person

Endorsement ” , Journal of Brand Management Vol 17 No 2

Creswell W.J ( 2002 ) , Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches, Sage publications, London.

Erdogan, B. Z. ( 1999 ) Celebrity indorsement: A literature reappraisal. Journal of Marketing Management, Vol.15

Ferrell.O.C, Hartline, D.M ( 2007 ) , “ Selling Scheme ” , Florence.

Graeme.T ( 2004 ) , “ Understanding famous person ” , Sage publications, London

Gregory, R.J, Weichmann, G.J ( 2002 ) , “ Branding across boundary lines: a usher to planetary trade name selling ” , McGraw-Hill Professional, UK

Hart.C ( 2005 ) , Making a literature reappraisal, Let go ofing the societal scientific discipline research imaginativeness, Sage Publications, London.

Howard, K, Peters, J and Sharp, P.J, ( 2002 ) The direction of a pupil research undertaking 3rd edition, Gower, England.

Hsu, C. K. and McDonald, D. ( 2002 ) An scrutiny of multiple famous person subscribers in publicizing.Journal of Product and Brand Management, Vol.11 No.1

Joyner. L R and Glatthorn. A A ( 2005 ) , Writing the winning thesis or thesis A bit-by-bit usher, Corwin imperativeness, California.

Kotler.P, Armstrong.G, ( 2007 ) , “ Selling: an debut ” Pearson Prentice Hall, U.K

Kvale S ( 1996 ) , Interviews: An Introduction to Qualitative Research Interviewing, Sage London

Luck, D. & A ; Rubin, R, ( 1987 ) , Marketing Research, 7th edition, Prentice Hall London.

Marconi.J ( 2000 ) , “ The Brand Marketing Book: Creating, Managing, and Widening the Value of Your Brand ” American selling Association.

McNabb, D. ( 2004 ) , Research Methods for Political Science: Quantitative and Qualitative Methods, M.E. Sharpe

Milne.R.G, McDonald.M, ( 1999 ) , “ Sport selling: pull offing the exchange procedure ” , Jones and barlett, Sudbury.

Peter.C ( 2002 ) , “ How Come Your Brand Is n’t Working Hard Enough? : The Essential Guide to Brand Management. ” Kogan page, London

Pringle, H. ( 2004 ) Celebrity Sells. San Francisco: John Wiley

Saunders, M. , Lewis, P. & A ; Thornhill, A. ( 2003 ) . Research Methods for Business Students. Harlow ( UK ) : Prentice Hall.

Silvera, D. H. and Austad, B. ( 2004 ) Factors foretelling the effectivity of famous person indorsement advertizements. European Journal of Marketing Vol.38 No. ( 11/12 ) .

Veal, A. ( 1997 ) , Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism, Pearson Education Limited

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