The really first theory which explains the relationship between FDI and trade is that of Heckscher- Ohlin. Harmonizing to this theory, normally a state will bring forth and export those goods which maximise the usage of its factor gift. Often states will be given to prosecute in the production of those goods whose factors are locally available and on the other manus import goods whose factors are either locally scarce or non available at all. However, due to the implicit in rule, that is, factors are internationally immobile ; it becomes hard to infer any decision on the nexus bing between FDI and trade.
Another attack in seeking to happen the relationship between FDI and trade is the 1 stated by Samuelson ( 1948, 1949 ) whereby he concludes that even if there is no motion in factors, the monetary value factor will equalize although there is merely trade in goods.
However, if factors are considered to be movable, so it is possible to find a relationship between FDI and trade. In fact, this was originally considered by Mundell ( 1957 ) in a seminal paper, whereby a standard two- good, two- factor and two- state Hecksher- Ohlin trade theoretical account has been considered. This theoretical account assumed capital mobility and the premise of standardized merchandise were relaxed. Therefore, capital motions became the perfect replacement for trade. The very footing of trade has been removed by the equalization of capital gifts. As such, in this sort of model, trade barriers explain to a great extent international capital motion.
In add-on, Markusen ( 1983 ) developed several theoretical accounts, where it was found that when there is factor motion so the volume of trade additions. These theoretical accounts initiate evidences for trade apart from disparity in comparative factor bequest. These theoretical accounts emphasise on external economic systems of graduated table and different production engineerings assisting as the footing for trade. In all theoretical accounts, factor mobility causes fluctuations in factor measures, making a auxiliary intent for trade in goods. Markusen ( 1983 ) winds up that the result of replaceability between FDI and trade found by Mundell ( 1957 ) is a alone instance merely present in factor proportions theoretical accounts.
Helmberger ( 1970 ) excessively found out that there is a complementary relationship between FDI and trade. It has been found that there is a complementary relationship between FDI and trade on if the premises of factor stationariness and standardised merchandises are relaxed. Furthermore, under spacial equilibrium model, Schmitz and Helmberger were able to turn out that trade additions when capital is allowed to travel internationally.
Vernon ( 1960 ) came with another version of explicating the nexus between FDI and trade on an aggregative degree known as the merchandise life rhythm. This originated from the U.S which was considered to be the richest and the technologically most advanced state in the universe. Therefore, it was easier for them to bring forth advanced merchandise which was at first meant for domestic production but so ingestion expanded to other states with about the same criterion of life as U.S. Due to cost force per unit areas, the manufacturers found it better to delocalise production. Finally, it can be said that as a consequence of cut downing cost, competition consequences in foreign production as a replacement for exports from place state ( U.S ) . This theoretical account clearly demonstrates how an amendment in location of production engenders an escape of FDI from U.S to low income states and in so making trading export escape.
Similarly, Horst ( 1976 ) besides argues about the complementary relationship between FDI and trade. Harmonizing to him, Multinational Enterprises ( MNEs ) are non merely prosecute in productions of concluding goods in the host state but they besides make usage of non- fabrication activities which are non ever straight related to the production procedure. The chief aim of MNEs is to capture the host states ‘ market. In order to make so, MNEs engage themselves in activities such as advertisement, retail part, proficient aid and version of the goods to local penchants. This construct is known as ‘ancillary Gods ‘ . Simultaneously, demand for other sorts of goods is created, perchance bring forthing an addition in exports from MNEs place state to the host state.
Now coming to a more recent theory which helps to understand the linkage between FDI and export is the theory of Multinational Enterprises. Normally, there are several standards behind which houses decide to set about Foreign Direct Investment ( FDI ) to go a transnational endeavor ( MNE ) and this is clearly illustrated by the theory of MNEs. Often, such a procedure of delocalising production to a host state can act upon its exports.
Harmonizing to this theory, inward FDI may hold a positive impact on the host state export in instance there are different factor strengths bing between the place and host state. Harmonizing to a first scenario, the MNE may take on portion of its production procedure to the host state and export the intermediate dorsum to the place state or other states to complete the production procedure. The other instance is whereby the whole production procedure is delocalised to the host state due to be advantages. Here, the host state may be used an export platform by the MNE to provide for the demand of the place market every bit good as other markets.
The implicit in rule for a house to go a MNE, it must hold certain advantages over other companies. These conditions have been grouped into three major classs by Tormenting ( 1993 ) . They are as follow ;
The MNE must be in ownership of a merchandise or production procedure unique to them that gives them market power in the foreign state.
The MNE needs to turn up production abroad to keep its competitory advantage and
The MNE must be induced to work its ownership advantage internally.
Most significantly, to analyze the consequence of FDI on host state ‘s export. It is critical to separate between the horizontal and perpendicular MNEs. An MNE is classified as being horizontally integrated in instance it produces standardized merchandise in several mills in many states. The chief ground ensuing in horizontally incorporate MNE is trade barriers such as duties or even expensive conveyance cost. Often it is hard for MNEs to make up one’s mind whether to construct up a new mill in the host state in order to run into the demand of the place market or export to the host state from the bing works in the beginning state. For case, for an oligopoly theoretical account, constructing up a new mill in the host state is better than exporting from the beginning state because
High conveyance cost and duty costs,
Possibilities of economic systems of graduated table are better, and
States identical in size and their factor gifts. ( Markusen and Venables 1998 ; Markusen 2002 )
On the other manus, vertically incorporate MNEs are MNEs where different parts of the production procedure take topographic point in different states. In order to do a suited analysis on vertically integrated MNEs, the two factors that should be taken into consideration are factor monetary value distinction and differences in factor strengths. This is because this will assist to better understand the geographical cleavage of the production procedure. From this it can really be deduced that there is a positive relationship bing between FDI and host state ‘s export because the mediators produced in the host state should be exported to the beginning state.
It is non ever that production taking topographic point in the host state is used on to supply the demand from the place market, but in several instances, the host state is used as an export platform to provide the beginning state ‘s market every bit good as the 3rd states ‘ demand. For case, in Mauritius Floreal Knitwear is based besides Madagascar whereby, it does non merely produces for Mauritius but in add-on for other states as good. Thus, Madagascar is an export platform for Floreal Knitwear.
Potential Indirect Effects of FDI on host states ‘ exports
Apart from the above mentioned theories, there are several other ways in which FDI can act upon host states ‘ exports.
However, it is indispensable to observe that FDI has indirect consequence on the export public presentation of the host states. The export of host state is non merely affected by foreign affiliates but nevertheless there are spillovers and indirect effects of FDI that can be reflected on exports.
Harmonizing to Girma et Al. ( 2007 ) and Barrios et Al ( 2005 ) , the spillovers and indirect effects of FDI on the host state exports may depend on the technological promotion of the state and its labour force. Conversely, Barry and Bradley ( 1997 ) specified that apart from the factors mentioned above, the strength of local competition in the market in add-on with authorities policies in favor of MNEs will play a function on the export public presentation of the host state.
In their survey, Helpman et Al. ( 2004 ) found that MNEs frequently are more productive than other companies. Furthermore, exporting companies are more performing than non exporting 1s. The good public presentation of houses can be explained by the ownership advantage possessed by the MNEs. For illustration, house specific plus is such an advantage. Girma et Al. ( 2007 ) and Markusen ( 2002 ) classified these assets such as production procedure, advanced merchandises, human capital of employees, or patents as the MNEs superior engineering or cognition. Hence, when MNEs set up a works in the host state, there is a high chance of spillover effects happening which is really indispensable to many host state. In fact, in merchandising industrial goods and services, the host state can merely copy the operations of the aliens. This can be promoted by local labor that was trained by the MNEs so switching to work for the local houses opening up.
Competition is a critical factor that can be considered as an indirect consequence of FDI. In their research, Markusen and Venables ( 1999 ) and Barios et Al. ( 2005 ) found that when an MNE enters one sector of the host state, the degree of competition additions which may even drive local houses out of the competition. Local exporting houses go forthing the market can be harmful for the trading public presentation of the host state particularly in footings of inward FDI as this may take to negative inward FDI. However, if the lost in exports of local houses can be replaced by those of the new MNE, so there will non be any negative impact. However, MNE can besides positively affect the export public presentation of houses in the host state. For case, frontward linkage is a manner in which productiveness of local houses can be increased. The entry of MNE in the host state may better both the fight and productiveness of local houses by the intense competition that will predominate or even by the improved quality of goods and services that will now be available on the market.
Apart from forward linkage, local manufacturers and foreign 1s can be related by backward linkages. With MNEs in a state, there may be extra demand for local inputs which in bend may beef up the supply industries. Harmonizing to Markusen and Venables ( 1999 ) , the positive consequence from forward linkages can be more good to local manufacturers than the competition effects. It was found that with the entryway of MNEs in the local market, this may hold a negative impact on local houses, therefore explicating a negative competition consequence but nevertheless this can be curtailed when there is adequate foreign houses. Barrios et Al. ( 2005 ) further argued that the positive indirect effects can rule the negative competition consequence even in the instance of local export- oriented companies.
In a study of UNCTAD ( 1999 ) , it was found that it becomes easier for local manufacturers to come in foreign markets as they get the inside informations from the MNEs found in their economic system or even by buttonholing for favorable intervention from the host economic system in their place state. This implies lower costs for local manufacturers come ining the foreign markets.
Empirical surveies on FDI and trade
Several empirical researches on the relationship between FDI and trade have emerged over the old ages. But, most of the empirical surveies emphasise on FDI generated by developed states. Like theoretical surveies, the focal point is on outward FDI and place state exports.
Sun ( 2001 ) examines in his research the impact of FDI on the exports of three different parts in China for the period 1984 to 1997. Decidedly, each part has non been assessed in the same manner ; specific initial conditions of the single parts were considered. To make a decision, he uses a panel information whereby it was found that the consequences are non similar for the different parts. It was noted that the impact of FDI on exports in the coastal part was strongly positive as compared to that in the Central portion of China, where despite being weak, it was still positive and important. But nevertheless, it the western part, it was wholly undistinguished.
Even if, Zhang and Song ( 2000 ) consider the same inquiry as Sun ( 2001 ) , they do so at the provincial degree for the old ages 1986 – 1997. Again, the panel informations theoretical account was used whereby the findings were as such. High degrees of FDI are consistent with high provincial exports. It is worthwhile to cognize that the positive consequence of FDI on exports in China has largely been a direct one.
In their research on the impact of FDI from the U.S in the fabrication sectors of single Latin American states on the net exports of those and other sectors, Goldberg and Klein ( 2000 ) found that the consequences vary across sectors and host states. Since the consequences are non the same in all sectors, they found it hard to do a clear cut decision about the bing relationship between FDI and trade.
Barry and Bradley ( 1997 ) were more descriptive in analyzing the effects of FDI on Irish exports. As the FDI in Ireland was largely export oriented, they came to the decision that there is a direct relationship between FDI and exports. They besides talked on the spillover effects of FDI but nevertheless, they did non seek to show it through empirical observation.
Gorg and Greenaway ( 2004 ) found in the literature on intra- industry spillover effects from FDI that whilst some documents find positive spillovers effects, there is certain paper which concluded that there are no important effects and some even found negative effects. In fact in passage states, there are many groundss indicating the negative spillover effects of FDI. Taking into consideration the methodological disadvantages such as possible prejudice of cross subdivision estimations used in many of the reviewed documents, the consequence of positive horizontal is put in inquiry. In fact, evidences demoing positive FDI spillovers on forward and backward industries are more believable than the horizontal effects.
Girma et Al ( 2007 ) analysed the consequence of inward FDI on productiveness of exporters in UK that have been acquired by the foreign companies. The consequence of FDI on these acquired houses will largely depend upon the clip elapse since the acquisition and non on the public presentation of the house before acquisition. Without taking into history the productiveness of the house before acquisition, one twelvemonth after its acquisition it was found that FDI had a important consequence on productiveness. Conversely, there was no important consequence in the twelvemonth of acquisition. However, if the initial productiveness is taken into consideration, it is found that merely those holding a high initial productiveness experienced productiveness additions in twelvemonth of acquisition, therefore reflecting the importance of absorbent capacity effects. FDI was besides good for companies with a lower productiveness two old ages after its acquisition. Hence, it can be said that the overall effects of FDI on a company normally takes clip. In add-on they besides tested the findings of Barrios et Al. ( 2005 ) about the U curve overall effects of FDI on domestic houses. This was confirmed in the survey of Irish companies whereby after adequate accretion of foreign capital, there was an effectual indirect consequence on domestic houses.
The chief aim behind the survey of Kutan and Vuksic is to happen the significance of FDI as a variable finding the export degree of 12 Central and Eastern European states during 1996 – 2004. Using existent effectual exchange rate, trade liberalization index, GDP tendency as control variables, they find two possible effects that FDI can hold on a host state ‘s exports. First, it is through the influence on domestic production capacity and secondly, FDI- peculiar effects generated by spill over effects such as engineering, knowhow and managerial accomplishments. They come to the decision that an addition in FDI well impact on the export of the chosen states in the research.
In their research in order to expose the impact of FDI on export of 14 most export- engaged FDI-attracting industrial and nutrient fabrication sectors in China for the period 1995 to 2005, Gu, Awokuse and Yuan ( 2006 ) conclude that taking into consideration some export variables, it is possible to descry the positive relationship between FDI and export. Analysis on a cross sectional footing excessively gives the same decision. But, nevertheless, the new component in this survey is that informations considered is non aggregated but it allows for and through empirical observation estimates the fluctuation in the effects of FDI on exports across the sectors. Finally, apart from one sector, the remainder of the sectors demonstrate the positive nexus between FDI and exports.
However, Gunawardana and Sharma ( 2009 ) come up with a different attack by building a theoretical account which takes into consideration short tally, lagged and long tally effects of FDI on export. They base their survey on how FDI inflows, labour productiveness and effectual rate of industry aid can impact the export public presentation of fabricating sectors in Australia for the old ages 1988 to 2005. What they really find out is that, both FDI and exports are positively interconnected. As per their findings, a 1 % addition in FDI inflow influence exports positively by 0.397 % in the short tally. Whilst, the consequence of four- one-fourth lagged FDI variable on exports is found to be 0.09 % higher. Finally, a 2.668 % addition is noted on exports in the long tally.
Using the gravitation theoretical account to prove the consequence of FDI on exports of Vietnam, taking into consideration the influxs of FDI from 23 states for the period 1990 to 2004, Xuan and Xing ( 2008 ) conclude that when FDI increases by1 % , there will be an addition of 0.25 % on exports.
As per Sharma ( 2000 ) in his survey in seeking to happen the factor that causes the rapid enlargement of export in India, he concludes that it is non merely FDI that contribute to this. There are other determiners which can explicate the positive nexus bing between FDI and export. After an in depth analysis of the FDI policies introduced in India during different old ages, he stress on the fact that several motive can explicate this growing in export by FDI. For case, one will anticipate a positive relationship in the instance of comparative advantage and of course a negative consequence for duty leaping encouraged FDI, as through investing the place state states merely seek to perforate local markets protected by imports duties and have no farther purposes to arouse exporting activities.
In their research work entitled “ Causal links between FDI and trade in China ” , Xiaming Liu, Chengang Wang, Yiangqi Wei ( 2001 ) based their survey on a panel of informations from China and 19 states for the old ages 1984- 1998. Through econometrical theoretical accounts, informations was trial for unit roots and causality. The consequences are as such that an addition in exports will do an addition in imports. In fact it is a round consequence ; imports positively influence inwards FDI which in bend addition export to beginning state. This can be helpful in assisting to develop trading schemes.
Taking into history a group of industries and seven EU states from 1973 to 2004, Falk and Hake ( 2008 ) examines the relationship between exports and outward FDI. In order to make a coherent consequence, they used the panel causality trials developed by Holtz- Eakin, Newey and Rossen ( 1988 ) . Harmonizing to their findings, in this peculiar instance, largely for CEE states and other developed states, it is exports that cause outward FDI and non the other manner unit of ammunition.
Andreas Johnson ( 2006 ) , utilizing informations from 1980 to 2003 for 8 high executing East Asiatic economic systems, attempts to happen the relationship between FDI and host states exports. Harmonizing to both clip series arrested developments and panel informations appraisal for single economic systems, it has been found that there is important relationship between FDI and host state exports.
In his survey, “ The impact of FDI on export public presentation: empirical grounds from EU campaigner states ” , Vesna Bucevska concluded that efficaciously for the period 1997 – 2007, FDI positively and significantly impact on the export of three EU campaigner states.