Working In The Media And Cultural Industries Media Essay

Communication is life ; it is portion of adult males day-to-day activity. There are several media organisations where people get information on current personal businesss, athleticss amusement, wild life, through either print, or broadcast ( Radio or Television ) media amongst which Chris Ubosi established and run Megalectrics Limited operations of The Beat 99.9FM, Authoritative 97.3 on the 1st of may, 2009 and Naija FM 102.7 on the 1st of October 2010.The three entirely licensed autochthonal wireless Stationss are all located at Lagos, Nigeria. The chief end of Megalectrics limited is to be the best wireless station in Nigeria. Chris Ubosi, MD/Founder said “ Our major aim is to supply the hearers the latest intelligence on amusement, athleticss, political relations and playing the latest music of the twenty-first century for young persons amongst the assorted other mark audience ” .

This is a work placement study analysing facets of my work in a media and cultural industry working as a intelligence houseman, utilizing theoretical stuffs taught during the faculty. The study will besides reflect my experiences utilizing these theories.

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Political Economy

Technological Promotion

Labour Practices



On the first twenty-four hours of my arrangement I had an initiation which was fundamentally meeting staff in the newsroom and acquiring familiar with the equipment countries, I was besides given log in inside informations to be able to pass on with staff and receive and direct out memo ‘s. As an houseman in the newsroom my chief responsibilities were to beginning, gather and redact the intelligence narrative, my first undertaking was to fix the forenoon intelligence which was hard for m because during my initiation I had non been taught the house manner of the organisation. For illustration ; Sentence construction, words and how to utilize figures as good.

However, one shortly realized that I was the lone female houseman in the newsroom I was frequently sent on reportorial or event coverage when I was non in the newsroom, understanding the thought that adult females are frequently used as symbolic goods or packaged groups in organisation was apparent.

Harmonizing to Bourdieu, Distinction ( 1984 ) : “ Occupations affecting presentation and representation such as manner, PR, advertizement, gross revenues, selling amongst can be compared to the establishments that provide services and symbolic goods. ” Bourdieu ( 1984 ) On the one manus, this thought that females are portrayed as sexual goods or a point of contact in branding an organisation through emotional labor, most adult females are sent on reportorial in the organisation so that they get attending of the intelligence shapers if it ‘s an person. For illustration, the twenty-four hours before one of the events which i went on reportorial I was informed by my caput of section that I was traveling on this assignment for the organisation and I needed to look my best so that the organisation would be a force to think with. On the one manus, it seemed as if my manner or aesthetic nature was non good plenty, on the other manus, the message came across as if I was being sold out in order to portray the organisational image for favour through my single manner.

In add-on, communicating between different genders was hard, instead than explicate what my errors were it was all about geological fault and knocking my accomplishments which i suppose is their manner of instilling me into the on the job civilization.

Additionally, when I tried to do questions about where I was incorrect I was ignored. Hochschild ( 1983 ) described emotional labor as ; “ an person ‘s socially coveted emotions displayed during work state of affairss ” . Hochschild ( 2003 ) people ( servers ) in a eating house frequently go through emotional labor. Her claims were that emotional labor had features which varied from:

The look of certain attitudes and emotions in a work environment that may different from the existent feelings experienced by the person.

Employees and clients voice or face-to-face contact.

The organisations display regulations: behaviour or societal stereotypes for peculiar professional classs, Specific professional preparation plans or work behavior/organizational norms. Hochschild ( 1983 )

However, adding to emotional labor, during meetings when I was called upon to compose the proceedingss i was approached impolitely by the caput of section who delegated the work to me ignorantly and without regard as if I was merely an intern without any educational makings and no professionalism and besides non a full clip staff. Emotional labor was apparent and a critical facet during my work arrangement as I had to command my feelings.


Manfred Stanley described engineering as a province of head that reflects in countless linguistics ways, of technological and scientific manners of concluding which rests on an act of conceptual abuses. The writer claims that the abuse consequences in the illicit extension of technological and scientific principle to the point of enforcing control over all human experience and readings. ( Manfred,1978: 12 ) . This here describes engineering as an object of the universe which alters the human apprehension of the universe by absorbing linguistic communication into ends and values for illustration information has rapidly become a being in the universe i.e holding kernel. However, communicating can place as a human activity that occurs between the head of people technological promotion and the age of digital engineerings has been able to divide itself from human whilst still holding beings. In order words Communication between employees and the direction of the organisation is really of import in order to pull off the repute.For illustration, communicating between myself, other employees of the organisation that I worked for and the direction was aided through digital engineerings. For case, when there are any organisational updates a memo was sent unit of ammunition through electronic mails specifying the state of affairs. Furthermore, intelligence narratives that were reported were straight gathered/ sourced from the cyberspace utilizing Google and other believable intelligence web beginnings. The options on how believable and how recent the intelligence narrative was made it of import to beginning for intelligence narrative for wireless on the cyberspace so as to acquire breaking intelligence and believable information. The intelligence assemblage procedure involved web hunt on intelligence web sites and bureaus for illustration, CNN or BBC for international intelligence narratives and 2,3,4 following for national intelligence narratives. After sourcing for the narrative it was edited by me and so sent to the intelligence newsman who in bend scrutinizes the book before reading the intelligence narrative on air.

However, McRobbie ( 2002 ) described, the theory of international division of labor ; castells web of production ; “ The displacement from company employees, to freelance, franchised or insouciant labor through development of little Numberss of diverse custodies involved at each phase of production web and topographic points affair. ” McRobbie ( 2002:98 ) . This is the thought of the international division of labour whereby talented people are employed from around the universe assemblage information, hiting scenes of the film, and the usage of cyberspace keeps the workers in touch till the terminal of the work production, which on the other manus is the same attack in the newspaper organisation different professionals are non needfully in the same topographic point at a peculiar clip. For illustration, after the transcript is typed, edited, proofread and designed on the computing machine. In the organisation, the editor and the bomber editor ( Me ) , and other staff did non ever have to be in the same room or even the same edifice during the newspaper production as some newsmans that are assigned to crush to garner narratives most of the clip direct intelligence narratives to the intelligence editor through the cyberspace via electronic mails, in other words, intelligence narratives can even be gathered whilst in different locations.

In add-on, the digital age was besides a great facet of my work arrangement, the digital engineerings which is besides the new media engineerings, dwelling of the cyberspace and it ‘s signifiers of communicating and airing of information was described as “ unambiguously democratising as it has comparative freedom from political and commercial restraints and its technological invention has made room for the equivocation of commercialisation, ordinances and censoring all this is has made it a communicative media as it is really synergistic and accessible ” Briggs and Cobley ( 1998 ) . Here the writers describe the cyberspace as a really strong component of the modern-day universe and society which allows for different audiences with different political orientations to be able to take part and be portion of determination devising of the authorities. Theses political orientations are made freely accessible and are non filtered and distorted. This theory is related to my experience during my work arrangement through this case, during the period of my arrangement there was an incident of a plane which had to do an exigency set downing due to hydraulic jobs in a certain province the issue became topical for wireless and a treatment was carried out on air people phoned in and discussed their sentiment straight sing the issue, online with the assistance of the cyberspace and societal media like facebook, chirrup amongst others the hearers besides sent in their sentiments which could non be altered by the wireless station even though some of the messages were pathetic and were largely directed at the authorities. Since the audience of the organisation varies harmonizing to the wireless station but by and large bulk are members of the local community who may or may non be internet literate the organisation has an cyberspace web site that can be accessed around the universe and remarks are made by readers, unfastened beginning communicating is available on the web site ( forums ) which makes the procedure of intelligence production more democratic. On the planetary scene, digital engineering has made it possible to listen to the wireless station via streaming nexus merely by downloading. This procedure of intelligence coevals and coverage has made it impossible for the organisation to hold media concentration based on the political beliefs by printing narratives of their involvement but instead based on the involvement of the readers which was the political orientation harmonizing to Briggs and Cobley ( 2008 ) : “ The cyberspace ‘s handiness and interactivity has made it to unambiguously show democratizing engineering invention because of the freedom from commercial and political restraints ” .

LABOUR Practice

My passion for the media industry can non be described this is why my three hebdomads work arrangement was in a media organisation ( radio exactly ) . The procedure of acquiring this arrangement was boring although I could non go to physical interviews because of being abroad as legion interviews were conducted over the telephone yet feedback was unsuccessful. The lone ground the place of a intelligence houseman at Megalectrics limited became mine got was a consequence of my parents affable relationship with the Managing Director. There must hold been other persons who had as much passion as myself or even more that did non acquire this chance as a consequence this shows that professional making or educational experiences is non an confidence that persons will acquire occupations or work arrangement chances in the modern-day society. Furthermore, the staff of the organisation in charge of the HR enlisting is ne’er about to carry on in-depth interviews in order to suit each person into the right place. This scenario hence undermines the thought of equal chances in a on the job environment particularly in the media and cultural industries. This can be related to the theory of engineerings of the ego “ Technologies of the ego are the specific patterns by which persons are subjected to representing themselves within and through the power systems ” Beck ( 2003 ) .Here Beck ‘s claim is that ; an person is selected for a peculiar occupation function based on he/she ‘s societal life style i.e the ability to blend with the large wigs and outstanding personalities in the peculiar field. Indeed, the thought that an person has to do more friends and acquire more contacts to acquire more work based on populating the right life style was apparent as personally connexions with the Managing Director was made by my parents before I was given the work arrangement place. However, the grade and extent to which the thought of equal chances was obviously undermined can be understood through this scenario, although the intelligence section was the major country of my arrangement, from clip to clip other sections were visited by me in order to hold a general sense of what occurrences in those sections one of which what the production and presentation section where all the voice over ‘s, redacting every bit good as hearing takes topographic point. Persons go in and out of the studio for hearings some of which I had to chance to detect, the procedure of choosing the successful appliers were non based on end product but seemingly some of the senior directors already had some of their relations and friends come over and they were immediately selected as the place proprietors.

In add-on to labor patterns, the engineering of ego or the working ego is a theory that can be linked to another facet of my arrangement. Harmonizing to Bourdieu, The kernel or demands that helps an person or group of people get through and understand their day-to-day activities is are acquired through unacknowledged and elusive ways. Bourdieu ( 1977:1991 ) . Here, Bourdieu uses the word ‘Habitus ‘ to depict the process by which temperaments to values actions ideas, linguistic communication and consequence are structured by persons. This means that an person has neither freedom nor restraints as to what their behaviour or value is because what is being inculcated reflects constructions from the outside normative societal universe. In other words, this can besides depict “ a new societal category, cultural patterns with typical gustatory sensations which means that businesss such as media industry businesss which include selling, Public Relations, gross revenues, publicizing amongst others are seen as establishments for the proviso of symbolic goods and services. ” ( Bourdieu, Distinction:359 ) .This is on the other manus argued by Foucault who describes persons as being governed through their heads and naturalisation of thoughts.He quotes “ a direction of possibilities and behavior of behaviors “ is the modern-day definition of the exercising of power. These theories are related to my arrangement as it foremost involved acquiring into a specific scenario i.e being familiar with an insider in the organisation before being able to acquire the arrangement and still at the same clip societal category was acute before you can gain a place in the organisation which is apparent when the organisation refused every other appliers by choosing the persons that they were familiar with. Besides this can be related to Foucaults theory when he described the media industry manufacturers as holding the power to find what is normal or unnatural. For case, the hearings in the organisation where carried out by the manufacturer who in bend selected the persons that had already being chosen by the senior direction staff.

Additionally, still on labour patterns, the issue of governmentality has affected the media industry through what is called the long hours civilization which is apparent when my arrangement contract stated portion clip and 20 hours, as mundane passed by my hours calculated where 40 hours which is doubled the sum of hours requested and contrary to the hours they had given me. This is contrary to the Torahs of the state which states that pupils can merely work for 20 hours when in session and over when non in session, this is related to the theory harmonizing to Janet Willis and Shirley Dex Beck, in the Cultural work theory: “ An ideal employee has to work beyond office hours and employees who do n’t work tardily are seen as less hardworking. ” The long hr ‘s civilization in the media organisations was apparent in the clip spent detecting most workers in the organisation daily so apart from transporting out the responsibilities given to me by the organisation detecting the procedure of intelligence casting by detecting the universe intelligence by 6: autopsy was besides portion of my responsibilities which ate into the figure of hours that were spent as oppose to what is seen as the ideal working hours based on the Torahs. Meanwhile, in the production section, where the hearings took topographic point I had to besides detect this process in order to hold an in deepness thought of what was traveling on after passing a few yearss in this section this brought the world to me that the thought than an ideal employee in an organisation had to remain in the office beyond office hours was apparent, as I had to remain in the office till the visible radiations went off.

However, another facet of my arrangement which was interesting can be related to the Protestant work ethic theory which is related to authorities policies and cultural attitudes every bit good as the willing slave “ gendered ” working wont. “ The less productive and less committed people are those who do n’t work for long hours because they do n’t conform to the impression of the ideal employee. “ ( Janet Willis and Shirle Dex Beck, Cultural work ) . This is an facet of my arrangement which was interesting based in the fact that most of the staff of the organisation were portion clip or on contract staff most of whom were female really few were full clip staff who had been a portion of the organisation since its constitution. For case, in the newsroom most of the staff were portion clip non needfully on internships like myself, but they had fixed or impermanent occupations in the organisation, these portion clip staff were paid following to nil compared to what the full clip staff were having as wages and fillips. Out of wonder Is spoke with a member of the direction and asked why this scenario had occurred he said that the staff placement was good for the organisation as the wanted to hold fewer staff at different periods and they besides wanted to give equal chances to persons around the state to be a portion of the organisation which to me was non a good alibi for the more portion clip workers and they get fewer wage, to gain two positions I spoke with a portion clip staff who described the scenario as “ development ” , the staff said that most portion clip staff were exploited as they did most of the occupations and got paid less, they stay for longer hours to do everything in the organisation in order.


Since the intelligence media has ever being concerned with the production and ingestion of cultural trade goods. The intelligence media plays an of import function in the political system and are expected to carry through figure of ‘Ideal ‘functions in broad democratic provinces ( Keane 1991, McNair 1995 and Negrine 1996 ) .The place of a intelligence houseman made me understand that several undertakings were acute such as the procedures that a newsworthy point undergoes before going public intelligence, construction of authorship and in house manner were besides necessary.The state of affairss in the organisation between the direction and employee dealingss have given me an penetration as to how the media industries work and what activities take topographic point in order to acquire an end product.

Therefore, the study on my work arrangement in the media and cultural industry has shown/demonstrated some of the countries of my work. Although, i had different functions but the major function as a intelligence houseman enlightened my cognition on the procedure of intelligence sourcing, assemblage, production and coverage. By using theories taught on the faculty to the state of affairss in the work environment utilizing an analytical attack.


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